Eastern Pennsylvania Testing & Inspection Services
Eastern Pennsylvania
Testing & Inspection Services, LLC
Nazareth, PA 18064
Phone: 610-417-1006
eastpenntest@aol.com
 
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PA Department of Environmental Protection
PA DEP ID# 2475

Lead

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Glossary

Abatement A procedure that eliminates lead-based paint hazards or lead-based paint. The four types of abatement methods are removal, enclosure, encapsulation, and replacement. Removal and replacement are permanent.

Abrasion Rubbing or friction that causes wear on a surface.

Accredited training provider A training provider approved by EPA to train individuals to be risk assessors, inspectors, supervisors, and workers.

All-purpose cleaner A general-purpose cleaning product.

Bare soil Soil not covered with grass, sod, other vegetation, or pavement. This also includes the sand in sandboxes.

Blood-lead level A measurement of how much lead is in the body.

Certified The designation for contractors who have completed training and other requirements to allow them to carry out risk assessments, inspections, or abatements safely. Risk assessors, inspectors, and abatement contractors should be certified by the appropriate local, state, or Federal agency.

Characteristics (of hazardous waste) EPA has identified four characteristics of hazardous waste: how easily the waste ignites, how corrosive it is, how it reacts with other substances, and how toxic it is to people and the environment. Any solid waste that has at least one of these characteristics may be classified as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), depending on how the waste is produced and how much is generated.

Chemical stripping A paint removal method that uses chemicals to strip off paint.

Chelation A medical drug treatment for lead poisoning.

Cleaner made specifically for lead Cleaning product made specifically for cleaning and removing lead-contaminated dust. Can be found in some paint and hardware stores.

Cleaning The process of using a HEPA vacuum and wet cleaning agents to remove lead dust. See also HEPA filter and wet cleaning.

Clearance examination An inspection performed after abatement work is completed in housing that contains lead hazards. Also recommended after interim controls and renovation and remodeling activities. Dust levels are checked to be sure that they meet standards.

Clearance examiner An individual who performs a clearance examination, usually a risk assessor or inspector. See also clearance examination.

Contaminate The process by which an area may become infected through contact or association.

Contractor Any business, public body, or person doing work on a lead-based paint hazard control project.

Deteriorated lead-based paint Any lead-based paint that is peeling, chipping, blistering, flaking, worn, chalking, cracking, or otherwise becoming separated from the surface to which it was applied.

dl Short for deciliter. A deciliter is one tenth of a liter, or a little less than half a cup of liquid. This measurement is used when measuring blood in the body.

Disposal (of hazardous waste) Getting rid of hazardous waste in a way that prevents it from polluting the environment.

Durable Able to exist for a long time without deterioration.

Dust removal A type of interim control that involves initial cleaning followed by periodic monitoring and re-cleaning, as needed.

Dust trap A surface, component, or furnishing where dust may accumulate.

Encapsulation An abatement method in which a lead-painted surface is coated with a special liquid paint that hardens and prevents lead dust from being released.

Enclosure An abatement method in which a lead-painted surface is covered with paneling, wallboard, or other approved material to prevent lead dust from being released.

Evaluation An assessment that includes a risk assessment, paint inspection, reevaluation, investigation, clearance examination, or lead hazard screen.

Exterior work area The area outside a housing unit in which lead hazard control work is performed. It includes areas such as porches or outdoor stairways.

Friction surface Any interior or exterior surface, such as a window or a door, subject to abrasion or friction.

Gram A metric unit of weight equal to one thousandth of a kilogram. It is close to the weight of a penny.

Hazardous waste Any waste that is considered dangerous to people or the environment by state or Federal laws.

Heat gun A device that forces warmed air onto a painted surface and softens the paint so it can be removed. Heating and burning lead based paint makes dangerous fumes and vapors. If a heat gun must be used, it should not be warmed above 1100° F.

High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter A filter that can remove very small lead particles and prevent them from being redistributed into the air. HEPA filters are used on respirators and vacuum cleaners to prevent lead exposure from projects that disturb lead-based paint.

Hydroblasting The process of using high-powered water pressure to loosen exterior paint so it can be removed.

Impact surface An interior or exterior surface such as the surface of a door subject to damage by repeated impact or contact.

Inspection (of paint) An evaluation to determine if lead-based paint is present in housing and where it is located.

Inspector An individual who has completed training from an EPA approved program and has been licensed or certified by the appropriate state or local agency to perform a lead-based paint inspection. See previous entry above for "inspection".

Interim controls A set of measures that temporarily reduce lead hazards. Such measures include specialized cleaning, repairs, maintenance, painting, and temporary containment.

Interior windowsill The portion of the horizontal window ledge that extends into a room on the inside of a house.

Leach The process in which liquid passes through an object, and particles from the object dissolve into or mix with the liquid.

Lead A heavy, bluish-white chemical that can be easily shaped.

Lead-based paint Any paint, varnish, shellac, or other coating that contains lead equal to or greater than 1.0 milligram per square centimeter or 0.5 percent lead by weight.

Lead-contaminated dust Surface dust in residential settings that contains levels of lead that pose a threat of adverse health effects in pregnant women or young children. The term is defined this way for the purpose of Lead In Your Home: A Parent's Reference Guide. However, this is a technical term that will be further defined by the EPA in the TSCA 403 regulation.

Lead-contaminated soil Bare soil in residential settings that contains lead at levels that are hazardous to human health. The term is defined this way for the purpose of Lead In Your Home: A Parent's Reference Guide. However, this is a technical term that will be further defined by the EPA in the TSCA 403 regulation.

Lead hazard Dangerous conditions or circumstances that cause lead exposure at levels that would result in adverse human health effects. Lead hazards could include deteriorated lead-based paint, lead-contaminated dust, and lead-contaminated soil. The term is defined this way for the purpose of Lead In Your Home: A Parent's Reference Guide. However, this is a technical term that will be further defined by the EPA in the TSCA 403 regulation.

Lead hazard control Activities to control and eliminate lead hazards. They include interim controls and abatement.

Lead hazard screen A type of risk assessment performed only in housing in good condition using fewer samples but more stringent evaluation criteria to determine the absence of lead-based paint.

Maintenance Work intended to maintain adequate living conditions in a housing unit.

Mg Short for milligram. It is equal to one thousandth of a gram.

Mil An English unit often used to measure the thickness of paint film or plastic sheeting. It is equal to one thousandth of an inch.

Monitoring Surveillance to make sure lead-based paint and lead dust are kept under control and that activities performed to control lead hazards continue to be successful.

NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. When you purchase a respirator, make sure the package says it is certified by NIOSH.

Off-site paint removal The process of removing a component from housing and stripping the paint from the component at an off-site paint stripping facility.

On-site paint removal The process of removing paint from components inside the housing.

Owner The person who holds the title to a housing unit.

Paint removal An abatement strategy to remove lead-based paint from identified surfaces

Parts per million (ppm) Measurement used to identify the amount of lead in paint. It is the weight of lead per 1,000,000 weights of a sample, including the lead. For example, if a paint sample contains 5,000 micrograms of lead in 1 gram of paint, then the lead concentration is 5,000 ppm.

Priming To prepare a surface for painting.

Reevaluation An assessment performed by a certified risk assessor to determine if a previously implemented lead-based paint hazard control measure is still effective and if the dust and soil levels remain lower than EPA standards.

Replacement A type of abatement that involves removing housing components coated with lead-based paint such as windows, doors, and trim and installing new components that are free of lead-based paint. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) A Federal law that defines hazardous and nonhazardous waste and regulates hazardous waste disposal.

Respirator A device worn to cover the mouth and nose. When working with lead-based paint, the only type of respirator that will filter out lead dust particles is one equipped with a HEPA filter.

Risk assessment An on-site investigation of housing to determine if lead hazards are present and how they can be controlled.

Risk assessor A certified individual who has completed training with an accredited training program and has been certified to perform a risk assessment. See also risk assessment.

Sandblasting A process in which sand is blown by air or steam to remove paint.

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) A law that limits the amount of which certain chemicals are allowed in drinking water. Congress made additions to this act in 1986 and 1988, which made it illegal to use lead in household plumbing.

Screening The process of testing children to determine if they have elevated blood-lead levels.

Solder A combination of metals used to join or patch metal parts or surfaces. Solder sometimes contains lead.

Solid waste Garbage, refuse, sludge or other discarded materials resulting from domestic, industrial, or commercial operations or from community activities.

Substrate A surface on which paint, varnish, or other coating has been applied or may be applied. Examples of substrates include wood, plaster, metal, and drywall.

Title X This law directs Federal agencies to develop regulations to strengthen and redirect national lead poisoning prevention efforts. Also called the Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992.

Trained The successful completion of a training course in one of the following disciplines: inspector, risk assessor, supervisor, project designer, and abatement worker. For lead hazard control work, the training course must be accredited by EPA or by an EPA-approved state program.

Treatment In residential lead hazard control work, any method designed to control lead-based paint hazards. This includes interim controls and abatement.

g Short for microgram. A microgram is one millionth of a gram.

g/dL Short for micrograms per deciliter. The measurement used to express how much lead is in your blood.

Wet cleaning The process of using a mixture of water and a household cleaner to remove lead dust.

Wet planning A process of smoothing off a surface. The surface is wet misted before being planned to keep dust levels down.

Wet scraping A process used to remove loose or chipping paint. The paint is wet misted before being scraped to keep dust levels down.

Window trough For a typical double-hung window, the part of the exterior windowsill between the interior windowsill and the frame of the storm window. This is sometimes inaccurately called the window well.. See also window well.

Window well The space that provides exterior access or light to a window that is below the level of the surrounding earth or pavement.

Worker An individual who performs lead hazard control work. Beginning in 1999, workers must be trained by an EPA-accredited provider and certified by EPA or a state or tribe to perform lead hazard control work.

Work area Any interior or exterior area where lead hazard control work is performed.

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